Changeset 1678 for Deliverables/addenda
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Deliverables/addenda/indexed_labels/report.tex
r1677 r1678 626 626 627 627 \section{Introduction} 628 In~\cite{D2.1}, Armadio et al.propose an approach for building a compiler for a large fragment of the \textsc{c} programming language.628 In~\cite{D2.1}, Armadio \emph{et al} propose an approach for building a compiler for a large fragment of the \textsc{c} programming language. 629 629 The novelty of their proposal lies in the fact that their proposed design is capable of lifting execution cost information from the compiled code and presenting it to the user. 630 630 This idea is foundational for the CerCo project, which strives to produce a mechanically certified version of such a compiler. … … 653 653 \end{itemize} 654 654 The first point unveils a weakness of the current labelling approach when it comes to some common code transformations performed along a compilation chain. 655 In particular, most \emph{loop optimi zations} are disruptive, in the sense outlined in the first bulletpoint above.655 In particular, most \emph{loop optimisations} are disruptive, in the sense outlined in the first bulletpoint above. 656 656 An example optimisation of this kind is \emph{loop peeling}. 657 657 This optimisation is employed by compilers in order to trigger other optimisations, for example, dead code elimination or invariant code motion. … … 665 665 If one looks closely, the source of the weakness of the labelling approach as presented in~\cite{D2.1} is common to both points: the inability to state different costs for different occurrences of labels, where the difference might be originated by labels being duplicated along the compilation, or the costs being sensitive to the current state of execution. 666 666 The preliminary work we present here addresses this weakness by introducing cost labels that are dependent on which iteration of its containing loops it occurs in. 667 This is achieved by means of \emph{indexed labels}; all cost labels are decorated with formal ind exes coming from the loops containing such labels.668 These ind exes allow us to rebuild, even after multiple loop transformations, which iterations of the original loops in the source code a particular label occurrence belongs to.667 This is achieved by means of \emph{indexed labels}; all cost labels are decorated with formal indices coming from the loops containing such labels. 668 These indices allow us to rebuild, even after multiple loop transformations, which iterations of the original loops in the source code a particular label occurrence belongs to. 669 669 During the annotation stage of the source code, this information is presented to the user by means of \emph{dependent costs}. 670 670 … … 679 679 \paragraph{Loop unrolling} 680 680 This optimisation consists of the repetition of several copies of the body of the loop inside the loop itself (inserting appropriate guards, or avoiding them altogether if enough information about the loop's guard is available at compile time). 681 This can limit the number of (conditional or unconditional) jumps executed by the code and trigger further optimi zations dealing with pipelining, if appropriate for the architecture.681 This can limit the number of (conditional or unconditional) jumps executed by the code and trigger further optimisations dealing with pipelining, if appropriate for the architecture. 682 682 \\\\ 683 683 Whilst we cover only two loop optimisations in this report, we argue that the work presented herein poses a good foundation for extending the labelling approach, in order to cover more and more common optimisations, as well as gaining insight into how to integrate advanced cost estimation techniques, such as cache analysis, into the CerCo compiler. … … 686 686 687 687 \paragraph{Outline} 688 We will present our approach on a minimal `toy' imperative language, \imp{} with \s{goto}s, which we present in \autoref{sec:defimp} along with formal definitions of the loop transformations.688 We will present our approach on a minimal `toy' imperative language, \imp{} with \s{goto}s, which we present in Section~\ref{sec:defimp} along with formal definitions of the loop transformations. 689 689 This language already presents most of the difficulties encountered when dealing with \textsc{c}, so we stick to it for the sake of this presentation. 690 In Section~\ autoref{sec:labelling} we summarize the labelling approach as presented in~\cite{D2.1}.691 Section~\ autoref{sec:indexedlabels} presents \emph{indexed labels}, our proposal for dependent labels which are able to describe precise costs even in the presence of the various loop transformations we consider.692 Finally Section~\ autoref{sec:conc} goes into more detail regarding the implementation of indexed labels in CerCo's untrusted compiler and speculates on further work on the subject.690 In Section~\ref{sec:labelling} we summarize the labelling approach as presented in~\cite{D2.1}. 691 Section~\ref{sec:indexedlabels} presents \emph{indexed labels}, our proposal for dependent labels which are able to describe precise costs even in the presence of the various loop transformations we consider. 692 Finally Section~\ref{sec:conc} goes into more detail regarding the implementation of indexed labels in CerCo's untrusted compiler and speculates on further work on the subject. 693 693 694 694 \section{\imp{} with goto}\label{sec:defimp} … … 696 696 The language was designed in order to pose problems for the existing labelling approach, and as a testing ground for our new notion of indexed labels. 697 697 698 The syntax and operational semantics of our toy language are presented in \autoref{fig:minimp}.698 The syntax and operational semantics of our toy language are presented in~\ref{fig:minimp}. 699 699 Note, we may augment the language further, with \s{break} and \s{continue}, at no further expense. 700 700 \begin{figureplr} … … 792 792 Note that for \s{break} and \s{continue} statements, those should be replaced with \s{goto}s in the peeled body $S$. 793 793 794 \paragraph{Loop unrolling .}794 \paragraph{Loop unrolling} 795 795 $$ 796 796 \sop{while}b\sbin{do}S\mapsto … … 800 800 \sop{if} b \sbin{then} S[\ell^n_i/\ell_i]) \cdots) 801 801 $$ 802 where $\ell^j_i$ are again fresh labels for any $\ell_i$ labelling a statement 803 in $S$. This is a willingly naïf version of loop unrolling, which usually 804 targets less general loops. The problem it poses to Cerco's labelling approach 805 are independent of the cleverness of the actual transformation. 806 807 \ section{Labelling: a quick sketch of the previous approach}\label{sec:labelling}808 Plainly labelled \imp{} is obtained adding to the code \emph{cost labels}809 (with metavariables $\alpha,\beta,\ldots$), and costlabelled statements: 810 $$S,T\gramm \cdots \mid \alpha: S$$ 811 Cost labels allow for some program points to be tracked along the compilation 812 chain. For further details we refer to\cite{D2.1}.813 814 With labels the small step semantics turns into a labelled transition 815 system anda natural notion of trace (i.e.\ lists of labels) arises.816 Evaluation of statements is enriched with traces, so that rules are like 802 where $\ell^j_i$ are again fresh labels for any $\ell_i$ labelling a statement in $S$. 803 This is a willfully na\"{i}ve version of loop unrolling, which usually targets less general loops. 804 The problem this transformation poses to CerCo's labelling approach are independent of the sophistication of the actual transformation. 805 806 \section{Labelling: a quick sketch of the previous approach} 807 \label{sec:labelling} 808 Plainly labelled \imp{} is obtained by adding to the code \emph{cost labels} (with metavariables $\alpha,\beta,\ldots$), and costlabelled statements: 809 $$ 810 S,T\gramm \cdots \mid \alpha: S 811 $$ 812 Cost labels allow us to track some program points along the compilation chain. 813 For further details we refer to~\cite{D2.1}. 814 815 With labels the small step semantics turns into a labelled transition system along with a natural notion of trace (i.e.\ lists of labels) arises. 816 The evaluation of statements is enriched with traces, so that rules follow a pattern similar to the following: 817 817 $$ 818 818 \begin{array}{lblL} … … 821 821 & \text{etc.} 822 822 \end{array}$$ 823 where we identify cost labels $\alpha$ with singleton traces and we use $\varepsilon$ 824 for the empty trace. Cost labels are emitted by costlabelled statements only% 825 \footnote{In the general case the evaluation of expressions can emit cost labels 826 too (see \autoref{sec:conc}).}. We then write $\to[\lambda]\!\!^*$ for the transitive 827 closure of the small step semantics which produces by concatenation the trace 828 $\lambda$. 829 830 \paragraph{Labelling.} 831 Given an \imp{} program $P$ its \emph{labelling} $\alpha:\Ell(P)$ in $\ell\imp$ 832 is 833 defined by putting cost labels after every branching, at the start of both 834 branches, and a cost label at the beginning of the program. So the relevant 835 cases are 823 Here, we identify cost labels $\alpha$ with singleton traces and we use $\varepsilon$ for the empty trace. 824 Cost labels are emitted by costlabelled statements only\footnote{In the general case the evaluation of expressions can emit cost labels too (see~\ref{sec:conc}).}. 825 We then write $\to[\lambda]\!\!^*$ for the transitive closure of the small step semantics which produces by concatenation the trace $\lambda$. 826 827 \paragraph{Labelling} 828 Given an \imp{} program $P$ its \emph{labelling} $\alpha:\Ell(P)$ in $\ell\imp$ is defined by putting cost labels after every branching statement, at the start of both branches, and a cost label at the beginning of the program. 829 The relevant cases are 836 830 $$\begin{aligned} 837 831 \Ell(\sop{if}e\sbin{then}S\sbin{else}T) &= … … 840 834 (\sop{while}e\sbin{do}\alpha:\Ell(S));\beta:\s{skip} 841 835 \end{aligned}$$ 842 where $\alpha,\beta$ are fresh cost labels, and while in other cases the 843 definition just passes to substatements. 844 845 \paragraph{Labels in the rest of the compilation chain.} All languages further 846 down the chain get a new sequential statement $\sop{emit}\alpha$ whose effect is 847 to be consumed in a labelled transition while keeping the same state. All other 848 instructions guard their operational semantics and do not emit cost labels. 849 850 Preservation of semantics throughout the compilation process is restated, in 851 rough terms, as 852 $$\text{starting state of $P$}\to[\lambda]\!\!^*\;\text{halting state} \iff 853 \text{starting state of $\mathcal C(P)$} \to[\lambda]\!\!^*\;\text{halting state},$$ 854 where $P$ is a program of a language along the compilation chain, starting and 855 halting states depend on the language, and $\mathcal C$ is the 856 compilation function\footnote{The case of divergent computations needs 857 to be addressed too. Also, the requirement can be weakened by demanding some 858 sort of equivalence of the traces rather than equality. Both these issues escape 859 the scope of this presentation.}. 836 where $\alpha,\beta$ are fresh cost labels. 837 In all other cases the definition just passes to substatements. 838 839 \paragraph{Labels in the rest of the compilation chain} 840 All languages further down the chain get a new sequential statement $\sop{emit}\alpha$ whose effect is to be consumed in a labelled transition while keeping the same state. 841 All other instructions guard their operational semantics and do not emit cost labels. 842 843 Preservation of semantics throughout the compilation process is restated, in rough terms, as: 844 $$ 845 \text{starting state of $P$}\to[\lambda]\!\!^*\;\text{halting state} \iff 846 \text{starting state of $\mathcal C(P)$} \to[\lambda]\!\!^*\;\text{halting state} 847 $$ 848 Here $P$ is a program of a language along the compilation chain, starting and halting states depend on the language, and $\mathcal C$ is the compilation function\footnote{The case of divergent computations needs to be addressed too. 849 Also, the requirement can be weakened by demanding some sort weaker form of equivalence of the traces than equality. 850 Both of these issues are beyond the scope of this presentation.}. 860 851 861 852 \paragraph{Instrumentations} 862 Let $\mathcal C$ be the whole compilation from $\ell\imp$ to the labelled 863 version of some lowlevel language $L$. Supposing such compilation has not 864 introduced any new loop or branching, we have that 853 Let $\mathcal C$ be the whole compilation from $\ell\imp$ to the labelled version of some lowlevel language $L$. 854 Supposing such compilation has not introduced any new loop or branching, we have that: 865 855 \begin{itemize} 866 \item every loop contains at least a cost label (\emph{soundness condition}), 867 and 868 \item every branching has different labels for the two branches 869 856 \item 857 Every loop contains at least a cost label (\emph{soundness condition}) 858 \item 859 Every branching has different labels for the two branches (\emph{preciseness condition}). 870 860 \end{itemize} 871 With these two conditions, we have that each and every cost label in 872 $\mathcal C(P)$ for any $P$ corresponds to a block of sequential instructions, 873 to which we can assign a constant \emph{cost}\footnote{This in fact requires the 874 machine architecture to be simple enough, or for some form of execution analysis 875 to take place.} We can therefore assume a \emph{cost mapping} $\kappa_P$ from 876 cost labels to natural numbers, assigning to each cost label $\alpha$ the cost 877 of the block containing the single occurrance of $\alpha$. 878 879 Given any cost mapping $\kappa$, we can enrich a labelled program so that a 880 particular fresh variable (the \emph{cost variable} $c$) keeps track of the 881 assumulation of costs during the execution. We call this procedure 882 \emph{instrumentation} of the program, and it is defined recursively by 883 $$ 884 \mathcal I(\alpha:S) = c \ass c + \kappa(\alpha) ; \mathcal I(S) 885 $$ 886 while in all other cases the definition passes to substatements. 887 888 \paragraph{The problem with loop optimizations.} 889 Let us take loop peeling, and apply it to the labelling of a program without any 890 adjustment: 861 With these two conditions, we have that each and every cost label in $\mathcal C(P)$ for any $P$ corresponds to a block of sequential instructions, to which we can assign a constant \emph{cost}\footnote{This in fact requires the machine architecture to be `simple enough', or for some form of execution analysis to take place.} 862 We therefore may assume the existence of a \emph{cost mapping} $\kappa_P$ from cost labels to natural numbers, assigning to each cost label $\alpha$ the cost of the block containing the single occurrance of $\alpha$. 863 864 Given any cost mapping $\kappa$, we can enrich a labelled program so that a particular fresh variable (the \emph{cost variable} $c$) keeps track of the summation of costs during the execution. 865 We call this procedure \emph{instrumentation} of the program, and it is defined recursively by: 866 $$ 867 \mathcal I(\alpha:S) = c \ass c + \kappa(\alpha) ; \mathcal I(S) 868 $$ 869 In all other cases the definition passes to substatements. 870 871 \paragraph{The problem with loop optimisations} 872 Let us take loop peeling, and apply it to the labelling of a program without any prior adjustment: 891 873 $$ 892 874 (\sop{while}e\sbin{do}\alpha:S);\beta:\s{skip} … … 894 876 (\sop{if}b\sbin{then} \alpha : S; \sop{while} b \sbin{do} \alpha : 895 877 S[\ell'_i/\ell_i]); 896 \beta:\s{skip}$$ 897 What happens is that the cost label $\alpha$ is duplicated into two distinct 898 occurrences. If these two occurrences correspond to different costs in the 899 compiled code, the best the cost mapping can do is to take the maximum of the 900 two, preserving soundness (i.e.\ the cost estimate still bounds the actual one) 901 but loosing preciseness (i.e.\ the actual cost would be strictly less than its 902 estimate). 903 904 \section{Indexed labels}\label{sec:indexedlabels} 905 This section presents the core of the new approach. In brief points it amounts 906 to the following. 907 \begin{enumerate}[\bfseries \ref*{sec:indexedlabels}.1.] 908 \item\label{en:outline1} 909 Enrich cost labels with formal indexes corresponding, at the beginning of 910 the process, to which iteration of the loop they belong to. 911 \item\label{en:outline2} 912 Each time a loop transformation is applied and a cost labels is split in 913 different occurrences, each of these will be reindexed so that every time they 914 are emitted their position in the original loop will be reconstructed. 915 \item\label{en:outline3} 916 Along the compilation chain, add alongside the \s{emit} instruction other 917 ones updating the indexes, so that iterations of the original loops can be 918 rebuilt at the operational semantics level. 919 \item\label{en:outline4} 920 The machinery computing the cost mapping will still work, but assigning 921 costs to indexed cost labels, rather than to cost labels as we wish: however 922 \emph{dependent costs} can be calculated, where dependency is on which iteration 923 of the containing loops we are in. 878 \beta:\s{skip} 879 $$ 880 What happens is that the cost label $\alpha$ is duplicated with two distinct occurrences. 881 If these two occurrences correspond to different costs in the compiled code, the best the cost mapping can do is to take the maximum of the two, preserving soundness (i.e.\ the cost estimate still bounds the actual one) but losing preciseness (i.e.\ the actual cost would be strictly less than its estimate). 882 883 \section{Indexed labels} 884 \label{sec:indexedlabels} 885 This section presents the core of the new approach. 886 In brief points it amounts to the following: 887 \begin{enumerate}[\bfseries~\ref*{sec:indexedlabels}.1.] 888 \item 889 \label{en:outline1} 890 Enrich cost labels with formal indices corresponding, at the beginning of the process, to which iteration of the loop they belong to. 891 \item 892 \label{en:outline2} 893 Each time a loop transformation is applied and a cost labels is split in different occurrences, each of these will be reindexed so that every time they are emitted their position in the original loop will be reconstructed. 894 \item 895 \label{en:outline3} 896 Along the compilation chain, alongside the \s{emit} instruction we add other instructions updating the indices, so that iterations of the original loops can be rebuilt at the operational semantics level. 897 \item 898 \label{en:outline4} 899 The machinery computing the cost mapping will still work, but assigning costs to indexed cost labels, rather than to cost labels as we wish. 900 However, \emph{dependent costs} can be calculated, where dependency is on which iteration of the containing loops we are in. 924 901 \end{enumerate} 925 902 926 \subsection{Indexing the cost labels}\label{ssec:indlabs} 927 \paragraph{Formal indexes and $\iota\ell\imp$.} 928 Let $i_0,i_1,\ldots$ be a sequence of distinguished fresh identifiers that will 929 be used as loop indexes. A \emph{simple expression} is an affine arithmetical 930 expression in one of these indexes, that is $a*i_k+b$ with $a,b,k \in \mathbb N$. 931 Simple expressions $e_1=a_1*i_k+b_1$, $e_2=a2*i_k+b_2$ in the same index can be 932 composed, yielding $e_1\circ e_2\ass (a_1a_2)*i_k + (a_1b2+b_1)$, and this operation 933 has an identity element in $id_k \ass 1*i_k+0$. Constants can be expressed as simple 934 expressions, so that we identify a natural $c$ with $0*i_k+c$. 935 936 An \emph{indexing} (with metavariables $I$, $J$, \ldots) is a list of 937 transformations of successive formal indexes dictated by simple expressions, 938 that is a mapping% 939 \footnote{Here we restrict each mapping to be a simple expression 940 \emph{on the same index}. This might not be the case if more loop optimizations 941 are accounted for (for example, interchanging two nested loops).} 942 $$i_0\mapsto a_0*i_0+b_0,\dots, i_{k1} \mapsto a_{k1}*i_{k1}+b_{k1}.$$ 943 944 An \emph{indexed cost label} (metavariables $\alphab$, $\betab$, \ldots) is 945 the combination of a cost label $\alpha$ and an indexing $I$, written 946 $\alpha\la I\ra$. The cost label underlying an indexed one is called its 947 \emph{atom}. All plain labels can be considered as indexed ones by taking 948 an empty indexing. 949 950 \imp{} with indexed labels ($\iota\ell\imp$) is defined by adding to $\imp$ 951 statements with indexed labels, and by having loops with formal indexes 952 attached to them: 953 $$S,T,\ldots \gramm \cdots i_k:\sop{while}e\sbin{do}S\mid \alphab : S.$$ 954 Notice than unindexed loops still are in the language: they will correspond 955 to multientry loops which are ignored by indexing and optimizations. 903 \subsection{Indexing the cost labels} 904 \label{ssec:indlabs} 905 906 \paragraph{Formal indices and $\iota\ell\imp$} 907 Let $i_0,i_1,\ldots$ be a sequence of distinguished fresh identifiers that will be used as loop indices. 908 A \emph{simple expression} is an affine arithmetical expression in one of these indices, that is $a*i_k+b$ with $a,b,k \in \mathbb N$. 909 Simple expressions $e_1=a_1*i_k+b_1$, $e_2=a2*i_k+b_2$ in the same index can be composed, yielding $e_1\circ e_2\ass (a_1a_2)*i_k + (a_1b2+b_1)$, and this operation has an identity element in $id_k \ass 1*i_k+0$. 910 Constants can be expressed as simple expressions, so that we identify a natural $c$ with $0*i_k+c$. 911 912 An \emph{indexing} (with metavariables $I$, $J$, \ldots) is a list of transformations of successive formal indices dictated by simple expressions, that is a mapping\footnote{Here we restrict each mapping to be a simple expression \emph{on the same index}. 913 This might not be the case if more loop optimisations are accounted for (for example, interchanging two nested loops).} 914 $$ 915 i_0\mapsto a_0*i_0+b_0,\dots, i_{k1} \mapsto a_{k1}*i_{k1}+b_{k1} 916 $$ 917 918 An \emph{indexed cost label} (metavariables $\alphab$, $\betab$, \ldots) is the combination of a cost label $\alpha$ and an indexing $I$, written $\alpha\la I\ra$. 919 The cost label underlying an indexed one is called its \emph{atom}. 920 All plain labels can be considered as indexed ones by taking an empty indexing. 921 922 \imp{} with indexed labels ($\iota\ell\imp$) is defined by adding to $\imp$ statements with indexed labels, and by having loops with formal indices attached to them: 923 $$ 924 S,T,\ldots \gramm \cdots i_k:\sop{while}e\sbin{do}S\mid \alphab : S 925 $$ 926 Note than unindexed loops still exist in the language: they will correspond to multientry loops which are ignored by indexing and optimisations. 956 927 We will discuss the semantics later. 957 928 958 \paragraph{Indexed labelling.} 959 Given an $\imp$ program $P$, in order to index loops and assign indexed labels 960 we must first of all distinguish singleentry loops. We just sketch how it can 961 be computed. 962 963 A first pass of the program $P$ can easily compute two maps: $\s{loopof}_P$ 964 from each label $\ell$ to the occurrence (i.e.\ the path) of a $\s{while}$ loop 965 containing $\ell$, or the empty path if none exists; and $\s{gotosof}_P$ from 966 a label $\ell$ to the occurrences of \s{goto}s pointing to it. Then the set 967 $\s{multientry}_P$ of multientry loops of $P$ can be computed by 968 $$\s{multientry}_P\ass\{\, p \mid \exists \ell,q.p =\s{loopof}_P(\ell),q\in\s{gotosof}_P(\ell), q \not\le p\,\}$$ 969 where $\le$ is the prefix relation\footnote{Possible simplification to this 970 procedure include keeping track just of while loops containing labels and 971 \s{goto}s (rather than paths in the syntactic tree of the program), and making 972 two passes while avoiding building the map to sets $\s{gotosof}$}. 973 974 Let $Id_k$ be the indexing of length $k$ made from identity simple expressions, 975 i.e.\ the sequence $i_0\mapsto id_0, \ldots , i_{k1}\mapsto id_{k1}$. We define the tiered indexed labelling 976 $\Ell^\iota_P (S,k)$ in program $P$ for occurrence $S$ of a statement in $P$ 977 and a natural $k$ by recursion, setting 929 \paragraph{Indexed labelling} 930 Given an $\imp$ program $P$, in order to index loops and assign indexed labels, we must first distinguish singleentry loops. 931 We sketch how this can be computed in the sequel. 932 933 A first pass of the program $P$ can easily compute two maps: $\s{loopof}_P$ from each label $\ell$ to the occurrence (i.e.\ the path) of a $\s{while}$ loop containing $\ell$, or the empty path if none exists; and $\s{gotosof}_P$ from a label $\ell$ to the occurrences of \s{goto}s pointing to it. 934 Then the set $\s{multientry}_P$ of multientry loops of $P$ can be computed by 935 $$ 936 \s{multientry}_P\ass\{\, p \mid \exists \ell,q.p =\s{loopof}_P(\ell),q\in\s{gotosof}_P(\ell), q \not\le p\,\} 937 $$ 938 Here $\le$ is the prefix relation\footnote{Possible simplifications to this procedure include keeping track of just the while loops containing labels and \s{goto}s (rather than paths in the syntactic tree of the program), and making two passes while avoiding building the map to sets $\s{gotosof}$}. 939 940 Let $Id_k$ be the indexing of length $k$ made from identity simple expressions, i.e.\ the sequence $i_0\mapsto id_0, \ldots , i_{k1}\mapsto id_{k1}$. 941 We define the tiered indexed labelling $\Ell^\iota_P (S,k)$ in program $P$ for occurrence $S$ of a statement in $P$ and a natural $k$ by recursion, setting: 978 942 $$ 979 943 \Ell^\iota_P(S,k)\ass … … 990 954 \right. 991 955 $$ 992 where as usual $\alpha$ and $\beta$ are to be fresh cost labels, and other cases just keep 993 making the recursive calls on the substatements. The \emph{indexed labelling} of 994 a program $P$ is then defined as $\alpha\la \ra : \Ell^\iota_P(P,0)$, i.e.\ a 995 further fresh unindexed cost label is added at the start, and we start from level $0$. 996 997 In other words: each singleentry loop is indexed by $i_k$ where $k$ is the number of 998 other singleentry loops containing this one, and all cost labels under the scope 999 of a singleentry loop indexed by $i_k$ are indexed by all indexes $i_0,\ldots,i_k$, 1000 without any transformation. 956 Here, as usual, $\alpha$ and $\beta$ are fresh cost labels, and other cases just keep making the recursive calls on the substatements. 957 The \emph{indexed labelling} of a program $P$ is then defined as $\alpha\la \ra : \Ell^\iota_P(P,0)$, i.e.\ a further fresh unindexed cost label is added at the start, and we start from level $0$. 958 959 In plainer words: each singleentry loop is indexed by $i_k$ where $k$ is the number of other singleentry loops containing this one, and all cost labels under the scope of a singleentry loop indexed by $i_k$ are indexed by all indices $i_0,\ldots,i_k$, without any transformation. 1001 960 1002 961 \subsection{Indexed labels and loop transformations} 1003 We define the \emph{reindexing} $I \circ (i_k\mapsto a*i_k+b)$ as an operator 1004 on indexings by setting 962 We define the \emph{reindexing} $I \circ (i_k\mapsto a*i_k+b)$ as an operator on indexings by setting: 1005 963 \begin{multline*} 1006 964 (i_0\mapsto e_0,\ldots, i_k \mapsto e_k,\ldots,i_n\mapsto e_n) … … 1009 967 i_0\mapsto e_0,\ldots, i_k \mapsto e_k \circ(a*i_k+b),\ldots,i_n\mapsto e_n, 1010 968 \end{multline*} 1011 and extending then to indexed labels (by $\alpha\la I\ra\circ(i_k\mapsto e)\ass 1012 \alpha\la I\circ (i_k\mapsto e)\ra$) and to statements in $\iota\ell\imp$ 1013 (by applying the above transformation to all indexed labels). 1014 1015 We can then redefine loop peeling and loop unrolling taking into account indexed labels. 1016 It will be possible to apply the transformation only to indexed loops, that is loops 1017 that are singleentry. The attentive reader will notice that no assumption is 1018 made on the labelling of the statements involved. In particular the transformation 1019 can be repeated and composed at will. Also, notice that erasing all labelling 1020 information (i.e.\ indexed cost labels and loop indexes) we recover exactly the 1021 same transformations presented in \autoref{sec:defimp}. 1022 1023 \paragraph{Indexed loop peeling.} 1024 969 We further extend to indexed labels (by $\alpha\la I\ra\circ(i_k\mapsto e)\ass \alpha\la I\circ (i_k\mapsto e)\ra$) and also to statements in $\iota\ell\imp$ (by applying the above transformation to all indexed labels). 970 971 We can then redefine loop peeling and loop unrolling, taking into account indexed labels. 972 It will only be possible to apply the transformation to indexed loops, that is loops that are singleentry. 973 The attentive reader will notice that no assumptions are made on the labelling of the statements that are involved. 974 In particular the transformation can be repeated and composed at will. 975 Also, note that after erasing all labelling information (i.e.\ indexed cost labels and loop indices) we recover exactly the same transformations presented in~\ref{sec:defimp}. 976 977 \paragraph{Indexed loop peeling} 1025 978 $$ 1026 979 i_k:\sop{while}b\sbin{do}S\mapsto 1027 980 \sop{if}b\sbin{then} S\circ (i_k\mapsto 0); i_k : \sop{while} b \sbin{do} S[\ell'_i/\ell_i]\circ(i_k\mapsto i_k + 1) 1028 981 $$ 1029 As can be expected, the peeled iteration of the loop gets reindexed as always 1030 being the first iteration of the loop, while the iterations of the remaining 1031 loop get shifted by $1$. 1032 1033 \paragraph{Indexed loop unrolling.} 982 As can be expected, the peeled iteration of the loop gets reindexed, always being the first iteration of the loop, while the iterations of the remaining loop are shifted by $1$. 983 984 \paragraph{Indexed loop unrolling} 1034 985 $$ 1035 986 \begin{array}{l} … … 1048 999 \end{array} 1049 1000 $$ 1050 Again, the reindexing is as can be expected: each copy of the unrolled body 1051 has its indexes remapped so that when they are executed the original iteration 1052 of the loop to which they correspond can be recovered. 1001 Again, the reindexing is as expected: each copy of the unrolled body has its indices remapped so that when they are executed, the original iteration of the loop to which they correspond can be recovered. 1053 1002 1054 1003 \subsection{Semantics and compilation of indexed labels} 1055 1056 In order to make sense of loop indexes, one must keep track of their values 1057 in the state. A \emph{constant indexing} (metavariables $C,\ldots$) is an 1058 indexing which employs only constant simple expressions. The evaluation 1059 of an indexing $I$ in a constant indexing $C$, noted $I_C$, is defined 1060 by 1061 $$I\circ(i_0\mapsto c_0,\ldots, i_{k1}\mapsto c_{k1}) \ass 1062 \alphab\circ(i_0\mapsto c_0)\circ\cdots\circ(i_{k1}\mapsto c_{k1})$$ 1063 (using the definition of ${}\circ{}$ given in \autoref{ssec:indlabs}), considering it defined only 1064 if the the resulting indexing is a constant one too\footnote{For example 1065 $(i_0\mapsto 2*i_0,i_1\mapsto i_1+1)_{i_0\mapsto 2}$ is undefined, 1066 but $(i_0\mapsto 2*i_0,i_1\mapsto 0)_{i_0\mapsto 2}= 1067 i_0\mapsto 4,i_1\mapsto 2$, which is indeed a constant indexing, 1068 even if the domain of the original indexing is not covered by the constant one.}. 1004 In order to make sense of loop indices, one must keep track of their values in the state. 1005 A \emph{constant indexing} (metavariables $C,\ldots$) is an indexing which employs only constant simple expressions. 1006 The evaluation of an indexing $I$ in a constant indexing $C$, noted $I_C$, is defined by: 1007 $$ 1008 I\circ(i_0\mapsto c_0,\ldots, i_{k1}\mapsto c_{k1}) \ass \alphab\circ(i_0\mapsto c_0)\circ\cdots\circ(i_{k1}\mapsto c_{k1}) 1009 $$ 1010 Here, we are using the definition of ${}\circ{}$ given in~\ref{ssec:indlabs}. 1011 We consider the above defined only if the the resulting indexing is a constant one too\footnote{For example $(i_0\mapsto 2*i_0,i_1\mapsto i_1+1)_{i_0\mapsto 2}$ is undefined, but $(i_0\mapsto 2*i_0,i_1\mapsto 0)_{i_0\mapsto 2}= i_0\mapsto 4,i_1\mapsto 2$, is indeed a constant indexing, even if the domain of the original indexing is not covered by the constant one.}. 1069 1012 The definition is extended to indexed labels by $\alpha\la I\ra_C\ass \alpha\la I_C\ra$. 1070 1013 1071 Constant indexings will be used to keep track of the exact iterations of the 1072 original code the emitted labels belong to. We thus define two basic actions to 1073 update constant indexings: $C[i_k{\uparrow}]$ which increments the value of 1074 $i_k$ by one, and $C[i_k{\downarrow}0]$ which resets it to $0$. 1075 1076 We are ready to update the definition of the operational semantics of 1077 indexed labelled \imp. The emitted cost labels will now be ones indexed by 1078 constant indexings. We add a special indexed loop construct for continuations 1079 that keeps track of active indexed loop indexes: 1080 $$K,\ldots \gramm \cdots  i_k:\sop{while} b \sbin {do} S \sbin{then} K$$ 1081 The difference between the regular stack concatenation 1082 $i_k:\sop{while}b\sbin{do}S\cdot K$ and the new constructor is that the latter 1083 indicates the loop is the active one in which we already are, while the former 1084 is a loop that still needs to be started% 1085 \footnote{In the presence of \s{continue} and \s{break} statements active 1086 loops need to be kept track of in any case.}. 1014 Constant indexings will be used to keep track of the exact iterations of the original code that the emitted labels belong to. 1015 We thus define two basic actions to update constant indexings: $C[i_k{\uparrow}]$ increments the value of $i_k$ by one, and $C[i_k{\downarrow}0]$ resets it to $0$. 1016 1017 We are ready to update the definition of the operational semantics of indexed labelled \imp. 1018 The emitted cost labels will now be ones indexed by constant indexings. 1019 We add a special indexed loop construct for continuations that keeps track of active indexed loop indices: 1020 $$ 1021 K,\ldots \gramm \cdots  i_k:\sop{while} b \sbin {do} S \sbin{then} K 1022 $$ 1023 The difference between the regular stack concatenation $i_k:\sop{while}b\sbin{do}S\cdot K$ and the new constructor is that the latter indicates the loop is the active one in which we already are, while the former is a loop that still needs to be started\footnote{In the presence of \s{continue} and \s{break} statements active loops need to be kept track of in any case.}. 1087 1024 The \s{find} function is updated accordingly with the case 1088 $$ \s{find}(\ell, i_k:\sop{while}b\sbin{do}S, K) \ass \s{find}(\ell, S, i_k: 1089 \sop{while}b\sbin{do}S\sbin{then}K).$$ 1090 The state will now be a 4uple 1091 $(S,K,s,C)$ which adds a constant indexing to the 3uple of regular 1092 semantics. The smallstep rules for all statements but the 1093 costlabelled ones and the indexed loops remain the same, without 1094 touching the $C$ parameter (in particular unindexed loops behave the same 1095 as usual). The remaining cases are: 1025 $$ 1026 \s{find}(\ell, i_k:\sop{while}b\sbin{do}S, K) \ass \s{find}(\ell, S, i_k: \sop{while}b\sbin{do}S\sbin{then}K) 1027 $$ 1028 The state will now be a 4tuple $(S,K,s,C)$ which adds a constant indexing to the triple of the regular semantics. 1029 The smallstep rules for all statements remain the same, without touching the $C$ parameter (in particular unindexed loops behave the same as usual), apart from the ones regarding costlabels and indexed loops. 1030 The remaining cases are: 1096 1031 $$\begin{aligned} 1097 1032 (\alphab : S,K,s,C) &\to[\alphab_C]_P (S,K,s,C)\\ … … 1109 1044 \end{cases} 1110 1045 \end{aligned}$$ 1111 Some expl ications are in order.1046 Some explanations are in order: 1112 1047 \begin{itemize} 1113 \item Emitting a label always instantiates it with the current indexing. 1114 \item Hitting an indexed loop the first time initializes to 0 the corresponding 1115 index; continuing the same loop inrements the index as expected. 1116 \item The \s{find} function ignores the current indexing: this is correct 1117 under the assumption that all indexed loops are single entry ones, so that 1118 when we land inside an indexed loop with a \s{goto}, we are sure that its 1119 current index is right. 1120 \item The starting state with store $s$ for a program $P$ is 1121 $(P,\s{halt},s,(i_0\mapsto 0,\dots,i_{n1}\mapsto 0)$ where $i_0,\ldots,i_{n1}$ cover 1122 all loop indexes of $P$\footnote{For a program which is the indexed labelling of an 1123 \imp{} one this corresponds to the maximum nesting of singleentry loops. We can also 1124 avoid computing this value in advance if we define $C[i{\downarrow}0]$ to extend 1125 $C$'s domain as needed, so that the starting constant indexing can be the empty one.}. 1048 \item 1049 Emitting a label always instantiates it with the current indexing. 1050 \item 1051 Hitting an indexed loop the first time initializes the corresponding index to 0; continuing the same loop increments the index as expected. 1052 \item 1053 The \s{find} function ignores the current indexing: this is correct under the assumption that all indexed loops are single entry, so that when we land inside an indexed loop with a \s{goto}, we are sure that its current index is right. 1054 \item 1055 The starting state with store $s$ for a program $P$ is $(P,\s{halt},s,(i_0\mapsto 0,\dots,i_{n1}\mapsto 0)$ where $i_0,\ldots,i_{n1}$ cover all loop indices of $P$\footnote{For a program which is the indexed labelling of an \imp{} one this corresponds to the maximum nesting of singleentry loops. 1056 We can also avoid computing this value in advance if we define $C[i{\downarrow}0]$ to extend $C$'s domain as needed, so that the starting constant indexing can be the empty one.}. 1126 1057 \end{itemize} 1127 1058 1128 \paragraph{Compilation.} 1129 Further down the compilation chain the loop 1130 structure is usually partially or completely lost. We cannot rely on it anymore 1131 to ensure keeping track of original source code iterations. We therefore add 1132 alongside the \s{emit} instruction two other sequential instructions 1133 $\sop{ind_reset}k$ and $\sop{ind_inc}k$ whose sole effect is to reset to 1134 0 (resp.\ increment by 1) the loop index $i_k$, as kept track of in a constant 1135 indexing accompanying the state. 1136 1137 The first step of compilation from $\iota\ell\imp$ consists in prefixing the 1138 translation of an indexed loop $i_k:\s{while}\ b\ \s{do}\ S$ with 1139 $\sop{ind_reset}k$ and postfixing the translation of its body $S$ with 1140 $\sop{ind_inc}k$. Later on in the compilation chain we just need to propagate 1141 the instructions dealing with cost labels. 1142 1143 We would like to stress the fact that this machinery is only needed to give a 1144 suitable semantics of observables on which preservation proofs can be done. By no 1145 means the added instructions and the constant indexing in the state are meant 1146 to change the actual (let us say denotational) semantics of the programs. In this 1147 regard the two new instruction have a similar role as the \s{emit} one. A 1148 forgetful mapping of everything (syntax, states, operational semantics rules) 1149 can be defined erasing all occurrences of cost labels and loop indexes, and the 1150 result will always be a regular version of the language considered. 1151 1152 \paragraph{Stating the preservation of semantics.} In fact, the statement of preservation 1153 of semantics does not change at all, if not for considering traces of evaluated 1154 indexed cost labels rather than traces of plain ones. 1155 1156 1157 \subsection{Dependent costs in the source code}\label{ssec:depcosts} 1158 The task of producing dependent costs out of the constant costs of indexed labels 1159 is quite technical. Before presenting it here, we would like to point out that 1160 the annotations produced by the procedure described in this subsection, even 1161 if correct, can be enormous and unreadable. In \autoref{sec:conc}, when we will 1162 detail the actual implementation, we will also sketch how we mitigated this 1163 problem. 1164 1165 Having the result of compiling the indexed labelling $\Ell^\iota(P)$ of an \imp{} 1166 program $P$, we can still suppose that a cost mapping can be computed, but 1167 from indexed labels to naturals. We want to annotate the source code, so we need 1168 a way to express and compute costs of cost labels, i.e.\ group the costs of 1169 indexed labels to ones of their atoms. In order to do so we introduce 1170 \emph{dependent costs}. Let us suppose that for the sole purpose of annotation, 1171 we have available in the language ternary expressions of the form 1059 \paragraph{Compilation} 1060 Further down the compilation chain the loop structure is usually partially or completely lost. 1061 We cannot rely on it anymore to keep track of the original source code iterations. 1062 We therefore add, alongside the \s{emit} instruction, two other sequential instructions $\sop{ind_reset}k$ and $\sop{ind_inc}k$ whose sole effect is to reset to 0 (resp.\ increment by 1) the loop index $i_k$, as kept track of in a constant indexing accompanying the state. 1063 1064 The first step of compilation from $\iota\ell\imp$ consists of prefixing the translation of an indexed loop $i_k:\s{while}\ b\ \s{do}\ S$ with $\sop{ind_reset}k$ and postfixing the translation of its body $S$ with $\sop{ind_inc}k$. 1065 Later in the compilation chain we must propagate the instructions dealing with cost labels. 1066 1067 We would like to stress the fact that this machinery is only needed to give a suitable semantics of observables on which preservation proofs can be done. 1068 By no means are the added instructions and the constant indexing in the state meant to change the actual (let us say denotational) semantics of the programs. 1069 In this regard the two new instruction have a similar role as the \s{emit} one. 1070 A forgetful mapping of everything (syntax, states, operational semantics rules) can be defined erasing all occurrences of cost labels and loop indices, and the result will always be a regular version of the language considered. 1071 1072 \paragraph{Stating the preservation of semantics} 1073 In fact, the statement of preservation of semantics does not change at all, if not for considering traces of evaluated indexed cost labels rather than traces of plain ones. 1074 1075 \subsection{Dependent costs in the source code} 1076 \label{ssec:depcosts} 1077 The task of producing dependent costs from constant costs induced by indexed labels is quite technical. 1078 Before presenting it here, we would like to point out that the annotations produced by the procedure described in this Subsection, even if correct, can be enormous and unreadable. 1079 In Section~\ref{sec:conc}, where we detail the actual implementation, we will also sketch how we mitigated this problem. 1080 1081 Having the result of compiling the indexed labelling $\Ell^\iota(P)$ of an \imp{} program $P$, we may still suppose that a cost mapping can be computed, but from indexed labels to naturals. 1082 We want to annotate the source code, so we need a way to express and compute the costs of cost labels, i.e.\ group the costs of indexed labels to ones of their atoms. 1083 In order to do so we introduce \emph{dependent costs}. 1084 Let us suppose that for the sole purpose of annotation, we have available in the language ternary expressions of the form 1172 1085 $$\tern e {f_1}{f_2},$$ 1173 and that we have access to common operators on integers such as equality, order 1174 and modulus. 1175 1176 \paragraph{Simple conditions.} 1177 First, we need to shift from \emph{transformations} of loop indexes to 1178 \emph{conditions} on them. We identify a set of conditions on natural numbers 1179 which are able to express the image of any composition of simple expressions. 1180 1086 and that we have access to common operators on integers such as equality, order and modulus. 1087 1088 \paragraph{Simple conditions} 1089 1090 First, we need to shift from \emph{transformations} of loop indices to \emph{conditions} on them. 1091 We identify a set of conditions on natural numbers which are able to express the image of any composition of simple expressions. 1181 1092 \emph{Simple conditions} are of three possible forms: 1182 1093 \begin{itemize} 1183 \item equality $i_k=n$ for some natural $n$; 1184 \item inequality $i_k\ge n$ for some natural $n$; 1185 \item modular equality together with inequality $i_k\bmod a = b\wedge i_k\ge n$ 1186 for naturals $a, b, n$. 1094 \item 1095 Equality $i_k=n$ for some natural $n$. 1096 \item 1097 Inequality $i_k\ge n$ for some natural $n$. 1098 \item 1099 Modular equality together with inequality $i_k\bmod a = b\wedge i_k\ge n$ for naturals $a, b, n$. 1187 1100 \end{itemize} 1188 The always true simple condition is given by $i_k\ge 0$, and similarly we 1189 write $i_k\bmod a = b$ as a simple condition for $i_k\bmod a = b\wedge i_k\ge 0$. 1190 Given a simple condition $p$ and a constant indexing $C$ we can easily define 1191 when $p$ holds for $C$ (written $p\circ C$). A \emph{dependent cost expression} 1192 is an expression built solely out of integer constants and ternary expressions 1193 with simple conditions at their head. Given a dependent cost expression $e$ where 1194 all of the loop indexes appearing in it are in the domain of a constant indexing 1195 $C$, we can define the value $e\circ C\in \mathbb N$ by 1101 The `always true' simple condition is given by $i_k\ge 0$. 1102 We write $i_k\bmod a = b$ as a simple condition for $i_k\bmod a = b\wedge i_k\ge 0$. 1103 1104 Given a simple condition $p$ and a constant indexing $C$ we can easily define when $p$ holds for $C$ (written $p\circ C$). 1105 A \emph{dependent cost expression} is an expression built solely out of integer constants and ternary expressions with simple conditions at their head. 1106 Given a dependent cost expression $e$ where all of the loop indices appearing in it are in the domain of a constant indexing $C$, we can define the value $e\circ C\in \mathbb N$ by: 1196 1107 $$n\circ C\ass n,\qquad (\tern p e f)\circ C\ass 1197 1108 \begin{cases} … … 1200 1111 \end{cases}$$ 1201 1112 1202 \paragraph{From indexed costs to dependent ones.} 1203 Every simple expression $e$ corresponds to a simple condition $p(e)$ which expresses the 1204 set of values that can be the result of it. Following is the definition of such 1205 relation. We recall that in this development loop indexes are always mapped to 1206 simple expressions over the same index. If it was not the case, the condition 1207 obtained from an expression should be on the mapped index, not the indeterminate 1208 of the simple expression. We leave to further work all generalizations of what 1209 we present here. 1113 \paragraph{From indexed costs to dependent ones} 1114 Every simple expression $e$ corresponds to a simple condition $p(e)$ which expresses the set of values that $e$ can take. 1115 Following is the definition of such a relation. 1116 We recall that in this development, loop indices are always mapped to simple expressions over the same index. 1117 If it was not the case, the condition obtained from an expression should be on the mapped index, not the indeterminate of the simple expression. 1118 We leave all generalisations of what we present here for further work: 1210 1119 $$ 1211 1120 p(a*i_k+b)\ass … … 1214 1123 i_k \ge b & \text{if $a = 1$,}\\ 1215 1124 i_k\bmod a = b \wedge i_k \ge b & \text{otherwise}. 1216 \end{cases}$$ 1217 Now, suppose we are given a mapping $\kappa$ from indexed labels to natural 1218 numbers. We will transform it in a mapping (identified with an abuse of notation 1219 with the same symbol $\kappa$) from atoms to \imp{} expressions built with 1220 ternary expressions which depend solely on loop indexes. To that end we define 1221 an auxiliary function $\kappa^\alpha_L$ parameterized by atoms and words of 1222 simple expressions and defined on \emph{sets} of $n$uples of simple expressions 1223 (with $n$ constant across each such set, i.e.\ each set is made of words with 1224 the same length). 1225 1226 We will employ a bijection between words of simple expressions and indexings, 1227 given by\footnote{Lists of simple expressions is in fact how indexings are 1228 represented in Cerco's current implementation of the compiler.} 1229 $$i_0\mapsto e_0,\ldots,i_{k1}\mapsto e_{k1} \cong e_0\cdots e_{k1}.$$ 1230 As usual, $\varepsilon$ denotes the empty word/indexing, and juxtaposition 1231 word concatenation. 1232 1233 For every set $s$ of $n$uples of simple expressions, we are in one of the following 1234 three exclusive cases: 1125 \end{cases} 1126 $$ 1127 Now, suppose we are given a mapping $\kappa$ from indexed labels to natural numbers. 1128 We will transform it in a mapping (identified, via abuse of notation, with the same symbol $\kappa$) from atoms to \imp{} expressions built with ternary expressions which depend solely on loop indices. 1129 To that end we define an auxiliary function $\kappa^\alpha_L$, parameterized by atoms and words of simple expressions, and defined on \emph{sets} of $n$uples of simple expressions (with $n$ constant across each such set, i.e.\ each set is made of words all with the same length). 1130 1131 We will employ a bijection between words of simple expressions and indexings, given by:\footnote{Lists of simple expressions are in fact how indexings are represented in CerCo's current implementation of the compiler.} 1132 $$ 1133 i_0\mapsto e_0,\ldots,i_{k1}\mapsto e_{k1} \cong e_0\cdots e_{k1}. 1134 $$ 1135 As usual, $\varepsilon$ denotes the empty word/indexing, and juxtaposition is used to denote word concatenation. 1136 1137 For every set $s$ of $n$uples of simple expressions, we are in one of the following three exclusive cases: 1235 1138 \begin{itemize} 1236 \item $S=\emptyset$, or 1237 \item $S=\{\varepsilon\}$, or 1238 \item there is a simple expression $e$ such that $S$ can be decomposed in 1239 $eS'+S''$, with $S'\neq \emptyset$ and none of the words in $S''$ starting with $e$ 1139 \item 1140 $S=\emptyset$. 1141 \item 1142 $S=\{\varepsilon\}$. 1143 \item 1144 There is a simple expression $e$ such that $S$ can be decomposed in $eS'+S''$, with $S'\neq \emptyset$ and none of the words in $S''$ starting with $e$. 1240 1145 \end{itemize} 1241 where $eS'$ denotes prepending $e$ to all elements of $S'$ and $+$ is disjoint 1242 union. This classification can serve as the basis of a definition by recursion 1243 on $n+\card S$ where $n$ is the size of tuples in $S$ and $\card S$ is its cardinality. 1244 Indeed in the third case in $S'$ the size of tuples decreases strictly (and 1245 cardinality does not increase) while for $S''$ the size of tuples remains the same 1246 but cardinality strictly decreases. The expression $e$ of the third case will be chosen 1247 as minimal for some total order\footnote{The specific order used does not change 1248 the correctness of the procedure, but different orders can give more or less 1249 readable results. A ``good'' order is the lexicographic one, with $a*i_k+b \le a'*i_k+b'$ 1250 if $a<a'$ or $a=a'$ and $b\le b'$.}. 1251 1252 Following is the definition of the auxiliary function $\kappa^\alpha_L$, following 1253 the recursion scheme presented above. 1146 Here $eS'$ denotes prepending $e$ to all elements of $S'$ and $+$ is disjoint union. 1147 This classification can serve as the basis of a definition by recursion on $n+\card S$ where $n$ is the size of tuples in $S$ and $\card S$ is its cardinality. 1148 Indeed in the third case in $S'$ the size of tuples decreases strictly (and cardinality does not increase) while for $S''$ the size of tuples remains the same but cardinality strictly decreases. 1149 The expression $e$ of the third case will be chosen as minimal for some total order\footnote{The specific order used does not change the correctness of the procedure, but different orders can give more or less readable results. A ``good'' order is the lexicographic one, with $a*i_k+b \le a'*i_k+b'$ if $a<a'$ or $a=a'$ and $b\le b'$.}. 1150 1151 Following is the definition of the auxiliary function $\kappa^\alpha_L$, which follows the recursion scheme presented above: 1254 1152 $$ 1255 1153 \begin{aligned} … … 1259 1157 \end{aligned} 1260 1158 $$ 1261 1159 \noindent 1262 1160 Finally, the wanted dependent cost mapping is defined by 1263 $$\kappa(\alpha)\ass\kappa^\alpha_\varepsilon(\{\,L\mid \alpha\la L\ra \text{ appears 1264 in the compiled code}\,\}).$$ 1265 1266 \paragraph{Indexed instrumentation.} 1267 The \emph{indexed instrumentation} generalizes the instrumentation presented in 1268 \autoref{sec:labelling}. 1269 We described 1270 above how cost atoms can be mapped to dependent costs. The instrumentation must 1271 also insert code dealing with the loop indexes. As instrumentation is done 1272 on the code produced by the labelling phase, all cost labels are indexed by 1273 identity indexings. The relevant cases of the recursive definition 1274 (supposing $c$ is the cost variable) are then 1161 $$ 1162 \kappa(\alpha)\ass\kappa^\alpha_\varepsilon(\{\,L\mid \alpha\la L\ra \text{ appears in the compiled code}\,\}) 1163 $$ 1164 1165 \paragraph{Indexed instrumentation} 1166 The \emph{indexed instrumentation} generalises the instrumentation presented in~\ref{sec:labelling}. 1167 We described above how cost atoms can be mapped to dependent costs. 1168 The instrumentation must also insert code dealing with the loop indices. 1169 As instrumentation is done on the code produced by the labelling phase, all cost labels are indexed by identity indexings. 1170 The relevant cases of the recursive definition (supposing $c$ is the cost variable) are then: 1275 1171 $$ 1276 1172 \begin{aligned} … … 1281 1177 $$ 1282 1178 1283 \section{Notes on the implementation and further work}\label{sec:conc} 1284 Implementing the indexed label approach in CerCo's untrusted OcaML prototype 1285 does not introduce many aspects beyond what has already been presented for the toy 1286 language \imp{} with \s{goto}s. \s{Clight}, the fragment of \s{C} which is the 1287 source language of CerCo's compilation chain~\cite{D2.1}, has several more fetaures, 1288 but few demand changes in the indexed labelled approach. 1289 \paragraph{Indexed loops vs index update instructions.} In this presentation 1290 we had indexed loops in $\iota\ell\imp$, while we hinted at the fact that later 1291 languages in the compilation chain would have specific index update instructions. 1292 In CerCo's actual compilation chain from \s{Clight} to 8051 assembly, indexed 1293 loops are only in \s{Clight}, while from \s{Cminor} onward all languages have 1294 the same three costinvolving instructions: label emitting, index resetting and 1295 index incrementing. 1296 \paragraph{Loop transformations in the front end.} We decided to implement 1297 the two loop transformations in the front end, namely in \s{Clight}. This 1298 decision is due to user readability concerns: if costs are to be presented to 1299 the programmer, they should depend on structures written by the programmer 1300 himself. If loop transformation were performed later it would be harder to 1301 relate information on loops in the control flow graph with actual loops 1302 written in the source code. Another solution would be however to index 1303 loops in the source code and then use these indexes later in the compilation 1304 chain to pinpoint explicit loops of the source code: loop indexes can be used 1305 to preserve such information just like cost labels. 1306 \paragraph{Break and continue statements.} \s{Clight}'s loop flow control 1307 statements for breaking and continuing a loop are equivalent to appropriate 1308 \s{goto} statements. The only difference is that we are assured that they cannot 1309 cause loops to be multientry, and that when a transformation such as loop 1310 peeling is done, they need to be replaced by actual \s{goto}s (which will happen 1311 further down the compilation chain anyway). 1312 \paragraph{Function calls.} Every internal function definition has its own 1313 space of loop indexes. Executable semantics must thus take into account saving 1314 and resetting the constant indexing of current loops upon hitting a function 1315 call, and restoring it upon return of control. A peculiarity is that this cannot 1316 be attached to actions saving and restoring frames: namely in the case of 1317 tail calls the constant indexing needs to be saved whereas the frame does not. 1318 \paragraph{Costlabelled expressions.} In labelled \s{Clight} expressions get 1319 cost labels too, because of the presence of ternary conditional expressions 1320 (and lazy logical operators, which get translated to ternary expressions too). 1321 Adapting the indexed labelled approach to costlabelled expressions does not 1322 pose particular problems. 1179 \section{Notes on the implementation and further work} 1180 \label{sec:conc} 1181 Implementing the indexed label approach in CerCo's untrusted Ocaml prototype does not introduce many new challenges beyond what has already been presented for the toy language, \imp{} with \s{goto}s. 1182 \s{Clight}, the \s{C} fragment source language of CerCo's compilation chain~\cite{D2.1}, has several more fetaures, but few demand changes in the indexed labelled approach. 1183 1184 \paragraph{Indexed loops \emph{vs}. index update instructions} 1185 In our presentation we have indexed loops in $\iota\ell\imp$, while we hinted that later languages in the compilation chain would have specific index update instructions. 1186 In CerCo's actual compilation chain from \s{Clight} to 8051 assembly, indexed loops are only in \s{Clight}, while from \s{Cminor} onward all languages have the same three costinvolving instructions: label emitting, index resetting and index incrementing. 1187 1188 \paragraph{Loop transformations in the front end} 1189 We decided to implement the two loop transformations in the front end, namely in \s{Clight}. 1190 This decision is due to user readability concerns: if costs are to be presented to the programmer, they should depend on structures written by the programmer himself. 1191 If loop transformation were performed later it would be harder to create a correspondence between loops in the control flow graph and actual loops written in the source code. 1192 However, another solution would be to index loops in the source code and then use these indices later in the compilation chain to pinpoint explicit loops of the source code: loop indices can be used to preserve such information, just like cost labels. 1193 1194 \paragraph{Break and continue statements} 1195 \s{Clight}'s loop flow control statements for breaking and continuing a loop are equivalent to appropriate \s{goto} statements. 1196 The only difference is that we are assured that they cannot cause loops to be multientry, and that when a transformation such as loop peeling is complete, they need to be replaced by actual \s{goto}s (which happens further down the compilation chain anyway). 1197 1198 \paragraph{Function calls} 1199 Every internal function definition has its own space of loop indices. 1200 Executable semantics must thus take into account saving and resetting the constant indexing of current loops upon hitting a function call, and restoring it upon return of control. 1201 A peculiarity is that this cannot be attached to actions that save and restore frames: namely in the case of tail calls the constant indexing needs to be saved whereas the frame does not. 1202 1203 \paragraph{Costlabelled expressions} 1204 In labelled \s{Clight}, expressions also get cost labels, due to the presence of ternary conditional expressions (and lazy logical operators, which get translated to ternary expressions too). 1205 Adapting the indexed labelled approach to costlabelled expressions does not pose any particular problems. 1323 1206 1324 1207 \paragraph{Simplification of dependent costs} 1325 As previously mentioned, the na\"{i}ve application of the procedure described in~\ autoref{ssec:depcosts} produces unwieldy cost annotations.1208 As previously mentioned, the na\"{i}ve application of the procedure described in~\ref{ssec:depcosts} produces unwieldy cost annotations. 1326 1209 In our implementation several transformations are used to simplify such complex dependent costs. 1327 1210 … … 1360 1243 The cost analysis carried out by the plugin now takes into account such dependent costs. 1361 1244 1362 The only limitation (which provided a simplification in the code) is that within a dependent cost simple conditions with modulus on the 1363 same loop index should not be modulo different numbers, which corresponds to 1364 the reasonable limitation of not applying multiple times loop unrolling to 1365 the same loops. 1366 \paragraph{Further work.} 1367 Indexed labels are for now implemented only in the untrusted OcaML compiler, 1368 while they are not present yet in the Matita code. Porting them should pose no 1369 significant problem, and then the proof effort should begin. 1370 1371 Because most of the executable operational semantics of the languages across the 1372 front end and the back end are oblivious to cost labels, it should be expected 1373 that the bulk of the semantic preservation proofs that still needs to be done 1374 will not get any harder because of indexed labels. The only trickier point 1375 would be in the translation of \s{Clight} to \s{Cminor}, where we 1376 pass from structured indexed loops to atomic instructions on loop indexes. 1377 1378 An invariant which should probably be proved and provably preserved along compilation 1379 is the nonoverlap of indexings for the same atom. Then, supposing cost 1380 correctness for the unindexed approach, the indexed one will just need to 1381 add the proof that 1245 The only limitation (which actually simplifies the code) is that, within a dependent cost, simple conditions with modulus on the same loop index should not be modulo different numbers. 1246 This corresponds to a reasonable limitation on the number of times loop unrolling may be applied to the same loop: at most once. 1247 1248 \paragraph{Further work} 1249 For the time being, indexed labels are only implemented in the untrusted Ocaml compiler, while they are not present yet in the Matita code. 1250 Porting them should pose no significant problem. 1251 Once ported, the task of proving properties about them in Matita can begin. 1252 1253 Because most of the executable operational semantics of the languages across the frontend and the backend are oblivious to cost labels, it should be expected that the bulk of the semantic preservation proofs that still needs to be done will not get any harder because of indexed labels. 1254 The only trickier point that we foresee would be in the translation of \s{Clight} to \s{Cminor}, where we pass from structured indexed loops to atomic instructions on loop indices. 1255 1256 An invariant which should probably be proved and provably preserved along the compilation chain is the nonoverlap of indexings for the same atom. 1257 Then, supposing cost correctness for the unindexed approach, the indexed one will just need to amend the proof that 1382 1258 $$\forall C\text{ constant indexing}.\forall \alpha\la I\ra\text{ appearing in the compiled code}. 1383 \kappa(\alpha)\circ (I\circ C) = \kappa(\alpha\la I \ra).$$ 1384 $C$ represents a snapshot of loop indexes in the compiled code, while 1385 $I\circ C$ is the corresponding snapshot in the source code. Semantics preservation 1386 will make sure that when with snapshot $C$ we emit $\alpha\la I\ra$ (that is, 1387 we have $\alpha\la I\circ C\ra$ in the trace), this means that $\alpha$ must be 1388 emitted in the source code with indexing $I\circ C$, so the cost 1389 $\kappa(\alpha)\circ (I\circ C)$ applies. 1390 1391 Apart from carrying over the proofs, we would like to extend the approach 1392 to more loop transformations. Important examples are loop inversion 1393 (where a for loop is reversed, usually to make iterations appear as truly 1394 independent) or loop interchange (where two nested loops are swapped, usually 1395 to have more loop invariants or to enhance strength reduction). This introduces 1396 interesting changes to the approach, where we would have indexings such as 1259 \kappa(\alpha)\circ (I\circ C) = \kappa(\alpha\la I \ra). 1260 $$ 1261 Here, $C$ represents a snapshot of loop indices in the compiled code, while $I\circ C$ is the corresponding snapshot in the source code. 1262 Semantics preservation will ensure that when, with snapshot $C$, we emit $\alpha\la I\ra$ (that is, we have $\alpha\la I\circ C\ra$ in the trace), $\alpha$ must also be emitted in the source code with indexing $I\circ C$, so the cost $\kappa(\alpha)\circ (I\circ C)$ applies. 1263 1264 Aside from carrying over the proofs, we would like to extend the approach to more loop transformations. 1265 Important examples are loop inversion (where a for loop is reversed, usually to make iterations appear to be truly independent) or loop interchange (where two nested loops are swapped, usually to have more loop invariants or to enhance strength reduction). 1266 This introduces interesting changes to the approach, where we would have indexings such as: 1397 1267 $$i_0\mapsto n  i_0\quad\text{or}\quad i_0\mapsto i_1, i_1\mapsto i_0.$$ 1398 In particular dependency over actual variables of the code would enter the 1399 frame, as indexings would depend on the number of iterations of a wellbehaving 1400 guarded loop (the $n$ in the first example). 1401 1402 Finally, as stated in the introduction, the approach should allow integrating 1403 some techniques for cache analysis, a possibility that for now has been put aside 1404 as the standard 8051 architecture targeted by the CerCo project has no cache. 1405 As possible developments of this line of work without straying from the 8051 1406 architecture, two possibilities present themselves. 1268 In particular dependency over actual variables of the code would enter the frame, as indexings would depend on the number of iterations of a wellbehaving guarded loop (the $n$ in the first example). 1269 1270 Finally, as stated in the introduction, the approach should allow some integration of techniques for cache analysis, a possibility that for now has been put aside as the standard 8051 target architecture for the CerCo project lacks a cache. 1271 Two possible developments for this line of work present themselves: 1407 1272 \begin{enumerate} 1408 \item One could extend the development to some 8051 variants, of which some have 1409 been produced with a cache. 1410 \item One could make the compiler implement its own cache: this cannot 1411 apply to RAM accesses of the standard 8051 architecture, as the difference in 1412 cost of accessing the two types of RAM is of just 1 clock cycle, which makes 1413 any implementation of cache counterproductive. So this possibility should 1414 either artificially change the accessing cost of RAM of the model just for the 1415 sake of possible future adaptations to other architectures, or otherwise 1416 model access to an external memory by means of the serial port.\end{enumerate} 1273 \item 1274 One could extend the development to some 8051 variants, of which some have been produced with a cache. 1275 \item 1276 One could make the compiler implement its own cache: this cannot apply to \textsc{ram} accesses of the standard 8051 architecture, as the difference in cost of accessing the two types of \textsc{ram} is only one clock cycle, which makes any implementation of cache counterproductive. 1277 So for this proposal, we could either artificially change the accessing cost of \textsc{ram} of the model just for the sake of possible future adaptations to other architectures, or otherwise model access to an external memory by means of the serial port. 1278 \end{enumerate} 1417 1279 1418 1280
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