# source:Papers/jar-cerco-2017/cerco.tex@3631

Last change on this file since 3631 was 3631, checked in by mulligan, 3 years ago

Rewrote abstract

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66\title{CerCo: Certified Complexity\thanks{The project CerCo acknowledges the
67financial support of the Future and Emerging Technologies (FET) programme within
68the Seventh Framework Programme for Research of the European Commission, under
69FET-Open grant number: 243881}}
70\subtitle{Certified resource analysis for a large fragment of C}
71\journalname{Journal of Automated Reasoning}
72\titlerunning{Certified Complexity}
74\author{Jaap Boender \and Brian Campbell \and Dominic P. Mulligan \and Claudio Sacerdoti~Coen} % who else?
75\authorrunning{Boender, Campbell, Mulligan, and Sacerdoti~Coen}
76\institute{Jaap Boender \at
77              Faculty of Science and Technology, Middlesex University London, United Kingdom.\\
78              \email{J.Boender@mdx.ac.uk}
79           \and
80           Brian Campbell \at
81              Department of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.\\
82              \email{Brian.Campbell@ed.ac.uk}
83           \and
84           Dominic P. Mulligan \at
85             Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.\\
86             \email{Dominic.Mulligan@cl.cam.ac.uk}
87           \and
88           Claudio Sacerdoti~Coen \at
89              Dipartimento di Informatica---Scienza e Ingegneria (DISI), University of Bologna, Italy.\\
90              \email{Claudio.SacerdotiCoen@unibo.it}}
91
92\begin{document}
93
94\maketitle
95
96\begin{abstract}
97Concrete non-functional properties of programs---for example, time and space usage as measured in basal units of measure such as milliseconds and bytes allocated---are important components of the specification of a program, and therefore overall program correctness.
98Indeed, for many application domains, concrete complexity analysis is arguably more important than any asymptotic complexity analysis.
99Libraries exporting cryptographic primitives that must be impervious to timing side-channel attacks, or real-time applications with hard timing limits on responsiveness, are examples.
100
101Worst Case Execution Time tools, based on abstract interpretation, currently represent the state-of-the-art in determining concrete time bounds for a program execution.
102These tools suffer from a number of disadvantages, not least the fact that all analysis is performed on machine code, rather than high-level source code, making results hard to interpret by programmers.
103Further, these tools are often complex pieces of software, whose analysis is hard to trust.
104More ideal would be a mechanism to lift' a cost model from the machine code generated by a compiler, back to the source code level, where analyses could be performed in terms understood by the programmer.
105How one could incorporate the precision of traditional static analyses into such a high-level approach---and how this could be done reliably---is not \emph{a priori} clear.
106
107In this paper, we describe the scientific contributions of the European Union's FET-Open Project CerCo (Certified Complexity').
108CerCo's main achievement is the development of a technique for analysing non-functional properties of programs at the source level, with little or no loss of accuracy, and a small trusted code base.
109The core component of the project is a compiler for a large fragment of the C programming language, verified in the Matita theorem prover, that produces an instrumented copy of the source code in addition to generating object code.
110This instrumentation exposes, and tracks precisely, the concrete (non-asymptotic) computational cost of the input program at the source level.
111Untrusted invariant generators and trusted theorem provers may then be used to compute and certify the parametric execution time of the code.
112
113We describe the architecture of our C compiler, its proof of correctness, and the associated toolchain developed around the compiler.
114Using our toolchain, we describe a case study in applying our technique to the verification of concrete timing bounds for cryptographic code.
115
116\keywords{Verified compilation \and Complexity analysis \and Worst Case Execution Time analysis \and CerCo (`Certified Complexity') \and Matita}
117\end{abstract}
118
119\include{introduction}
120\include{architecture}
121\include{proof}
122\include{development}
123\include{framac}
124\include{conclusions}
125
126\begin{acknowledgements}
127\end{acknowledgements}
128
129\bibliographystyle{spmpsci}
130\bibliography{cerco}
131
132\end{document}
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